2n5109 Amplifier

95 MHz, on which we have a very strong local pager transmitter. IP3out of realized preamplifier with 2N3866 or better 2N5109 is +38 dBm gain 15 dB(roll off less then 1dB at 50 MHz) and NF ~5dB with 80mA. com SILICON DESCRIPTION: NPN RF TRANSISTOR The CENTRAL SEMICONDUCTOR 2N5109 is a Silicon NPN Epitaxial Planar RF Transistor mounted in a hermetically sealed package designed for high frequency amplifier applications. Information on using the program and simulating the amplifier can be found at "Simulating Circuits and Systems with Serenade SV", by David Newkirk, W9VES, January 2001, QST, Page 37. You can easy set the gain as high as you need!. 0 1 2N5109/2N3866 Low-noise Broadband HF Pre-amplifier Thank you for choosing my KIT for building a very nice HF amplifier. 2N5109 push-pull RF amp transformers ? Discussion in 'General Technical Questions and Answers' started by AA7EJ, Mar 28, 2016. of broadband transformer design are adhered to, then a BJT CBTF amp using 2N5109’s has about the same frequency range as the transformer alone for a given Z0. Free Tools for Electronics Designers, EAGLE Libraries. STANDARD 2N5109 AMP This is a single 2N5109 broadband amplifier. VOUT eblog10 # VIN VREFJ Voltage Controlled Variable Gain Amplifier TL/H/9241–4 *R8–R10 and D2 provide a temperature Distortion k 0. Тиндер (Tinder) — частично платное приложение для мобильных платформ Android и Apple iOS, предназначенное для романтических знакомств в соответствии с заданными параметрами и с учетом геолокации. MAXIMUM RATINGS IC 400 mA VCE 20 V PDISS 1. When I initially got the Harris, I drove it from the transvertor output of a TS-850 through a single 2N5109 broadband amp stage. 2N5109 somewhere in the middle. pdf Size:488K _central 2N5109 www. Electronic components distributor with huge selection in stock and ready to ship same day with no minimum orders. Also JFETs are less noisy at low frequencies compared Bipolar transistors. DX Engineering Preamp. You can use it as high IP preamplifier for RX antennas (beverage, DHDL, flag etc. This RF amp is very wide. The antenna current consumption is 150 mA. What about that amplifier? This is an evolving project and two versions were designed with separate board runs made for each. RF/VHF/UHF Transistor MOTOROLA/RCA TO-39 2N5109 Below are the parts available in Stock:. Bipolar Transistor. The data sheet refers to a patent that reads like a construction article. I am thinking that the 2N5109 at kitsandparts. The single 2N5109 amp on the right, and the single 2N5109 Norton on the left. When using a low frequency device like the DCP68, the high end starts rolling off around 7 MHz. This PCB is for 5N5109 or DCP68 transistors. net The theoretical maximum efficiency, RF power output / DC power input, is 78 percent but depends on the impedance of the plate load. power amplifier 2. Depending on Frequency, I like BFY90, the BFR series (BRF90, BFR91, BFR96), the 2N5109 CATV transistor, but also the 2N5179 or similar. Input impedance is reasonably high, as typical of other common-emitter designs. In front of the receiver there is an attenuator for strong local signals. RF Engineering & Ham-Radio PCB Modules and DIY KITs - Antennae - Audio HiFi - Connectors - Crystals - DC Power - Diodes - Ferrite Toroidal Cores - Filters - Frequency Converters - GNSS - Inductors -Integrated Circuits - LNAs - LoRa chips - PCB Art items - New Product Design Services - Project Boxes - RF Attenuators - RF Cables - RF Mixer - RF. Minimum Order: The Minimun Order amount is $15. If you want a good HF amplifier, you could do a lot worse than using the W8DIZ unit, available as a kit, using a 2N5109. Limit the current to 10ma and garden variety BC549c can do the job for you. STANDARD 2N5109 AMP This is a single 2N5109 broadband amplifier. IP3out of realized preamplifier with 2N3866 or better 2N5109 is +38 dBm gain 15 dB(roll off less then 1dB at 50 MHz) and NF ~5dB with 80mA. They are joied together using 1” long pieces of 2 1/2” PVC pipe (not shown). In this application, linearity is the crucial need. Return loss of the feedback amplifier with 13 dB gain. Connectors for 12Vdc, RF in and RF out are on the back. '4046 SPICE Model. Decide the output impedance of the RF Amp, 50 or 200 Ohms. The outermost 1" or more of the Tee is to be cut off, as is the better portion of the PVC end caps so as to make the assembly more compact. com Vishay Semiconductors Rev. I have the amp and have constructed several others of the same kind, usually on pc board. This amplifier is broadband from about 0. It includes a 6db output attenuator that also provides a 50 ohm output. Written by LA7MI Stein Torp, N-5005 Bergen (Sept 93/May 98) (partly translated by LA8AK, and added some pictures and notes based on telephone conversation with the author). (LT-Spice) Other RF models also welcome. 100uF/25V electrolytic capacitor instead of 1uF. Construction. Default is 50 ohms. Find out the details about its history, geography, facts, travel destinations and more. 25Mhz IF, which is TV Ch 3 or 4. MARKING: FULL PART NUMBER MAXIMUM RATINGS: (TA=25°C unless otherwise noted) SYMBOL UNITS Collector-Base Voltage VCBO 40 V. 0 1 2N5109/2N3866 Low-noise Broadband HF Pre-amplifier Thank you for choosing my KIT for building a very nice HF amplifier. Input should be at least 100mW to achieve 1W output. 2N Transistor Datasheet pdf, 2N Equivalent. Moreover, we offer this product at nominal costs. As built, I measured about +13 dB gain and it drew 118 mA @ 14. The LEDs were brightly lit after this modification. WINTransceiver C B E Features: Low Noise Figure: NF = 3. I swapped the 0. Minimum Order: The Minimun Order amount is $15. The amp gain, i/p and o/p in 50 ohms was therefore 20log(0. Download 2n datasheet from continental device india limited. The answer to this conundrum is that these amplifiers were designed around 24v power supplies. Transistors tried that worked better included the TO18 2n2222A, 2n3866, and 2n5109. Zisk je do 18dBA a je možné. Description: This is a down converter that converts wide band TV signals in the 420 to 440Mhz (70-cm amateur TV) to a 61. Wideband Loop Antenna Amplifier #1 Mechanicals This version of amplifier is intended to be mounted in a 2 1/2” PVC Tee. Digital In digital applications of semiconductors, the goal is to switch between on and off states at the clock frequency, spending no time in between and thus. My board layout for the 2N5109 preamp Obviously, I drank too much coffee before making these two boards, but they worked fine. 4a 4w 5ma | 2n5109 si-n 40v 0. A 2N5109 feedback amp gives needed gain plus a well-defined output impedance that's further boosted with a 3 dB pad. Even with 20db preamplification the noise level on 160m just barely goes up when you plug the antenna in. Transistor Power Gain Voltage Frequency Mode Case Pin 123; MRF134: 5W: 14dB: 28V: 30-225MHz: FM/AM/SSB MRF136: 15W: 16dB: 28V: 30-225MHz: FM/AM/SSB MRF148A. Click here for the datasheet for NTE278. I thought, let me try some other NPN transistors. This high gain level is needed to over-come the first-mixer noise. You can use it as high IP preamplifier, buffer amplifier or small driver. 2N5109 PDF - Visit our website at or contact our factory direct. This is very simply preamplifier module with 2N5109 transistor based on W7IUV design. Title: Protel Schematic Author: mkatsouris Created Date: 12/24/2013 1:28:09 PM. Power amplifier modules; Integrated circuits. The first was based on EMRFD Figure 2. Circuit consists of a low-noise dual-gate MESFET RF amplifier, mixer, tunable local osc. The basic transistor amplifier circuit is indicated below: It is called a "common emitter" amplifier since the emitter is common to both the input circuti and the output circuit. There are additionally three capacitors but they do not play a role in the basic transistor amplifier design which mainly involves setting DC voltages. AD797AN quality op amp N. The PNP is listed as having PD = 1W, fT = 1 GHz. Miscelaneous Dummy load 800 watts. The leftmost relay is the RF attenuator and the relay to the right switches the 2N5109 RF amplifier in and out of circuit. The low gain of the antenna requires a preamp. Thats my opinion for what it's worth. It's ancient. Beverage Antenna Pre-Amplifier (2N5109) Beverage Antennas Switch VHF DK7ZB antenna 4 x 4 elements for 144 MHz Low noise pre-amplifier for 144 MHz 14 element Yagi DL6WU for 2m band The rope antenna for 144 MHz Do you know what your antenna sees? Panoramic view from the top of the mast. Build this Universal 10 watt Linear RF Amplifier for $48 (please use CTRL+L for full-screen view) 1 2N5109 Q5 1 BN43-2402 T3 2 2SC5739 Q2, 3, 4 2 BN61-202 T1, 2. Digital In digital applications of semiconductors, the goal is to switch between on and off states at the clock frequency, spending no time in between and thus. Pagarbiai, Marius, LY4Z KO14WV, Kaunas Active on HF, 50 MHz, 144 MHz, 430 MHz. Mistä näitä transistoreita oikein tulee ? Paras pari oli hfe 15 ja 16. Page 10 MFJ cub QRP CW Transceiver Operation Manual IC Voltages 13. Default is 50 ohms. The educational resource for the global engineering community. Question: (b) High Impedance Low Capacitance Amplifier 100 } 1K Vour 2 VIN 2N5109 2N4416 VOUT R2 10K 10M R1 IK IK TL/H/6791-24 High Impedance Low Capacitance Amplifier This Compound Series-feedback Circuit Provides High Input Impedance And Stable, Wide-band Gain For General Purpose Video Amplifier Applications. May someone can point me in the right direction. The antenna is a triangular loop antenna 1. 2n5090 si-n 55v 0. Similarly, the 2N5109 and 2N3866 often show up in places like transmitter driver stages and post-mixer amplifiers. Output at each splitter port is approximately +17. There are additionally three capacitors but they do not play a role in the basic transistor amplifier design which mainly involves setting DC voltages. 2n3866 og 2n5109 og faldt for ik4auy's artikel i QEX da der foruden forstærkeren også er beskrevet de nødvendige filtre. W7IUV 2N5109 Preamp Comments: W7IUV 2N5109 Preamp Comments: WA1ION & K6SE Q&A: W7IUV Compares Low Noise Antennas: Room for 4 Pennants- Part 1: K9AY Comments-Rx Loop Families: K9AY Comments-Rx Loop Families: Room for 4 Pennants- Part 2: Waller Loop NX4D & N4IS: Waller Loop NX4D & N4IS: Flag Pennant Feedline Routing: N3OX Small (7x14ft) Rotary. to-39 2n5109 npn 200 3 10 15 12 1200 3. Decide the output impedance of the RF Amp, 50 or 200 Ohms. Results After changing the balun and filter, without restoring the original amplifier circuit, the amplifier happily delivered over 2. The circuit as shown here is the way I build it. The circuit as shown here is the way I build it. mosfets: bs170. These are pretty standard batteries and I have just got another spare one from my local radio store for just £6. The answer to this conundrum is that these amplifiers were designed around 24v power supplies. Order) 40290 scr transistor. 55 usually work in these circuits with no difference in performance. 3MHz Noise Figure Measurement N-Gen -> 40dB Attenuator -> DUT -> 30dB LNA -> VNWA Port 2 Power = 12. It includes a 6db output attenuator that also provides a 50 ohm output. Published 2018-06-04 by USDoD (United States Department of Defense). Oct 29, 2018 - Explore Engsenan's board "Amplifiers" on Pinterest. Other suggested transistors types are Q1=BD135, BD137, BD139, Q2= 2N3906, BC557, BC558, TIY050. The input filter with 47 and 68 mH inductors. Although differential amplifier 10 may be fabricated in various configurations with components of many different values and types, a suitable amplifier may be fabricated by using the listed components for the various elements in the above-described circuit: Transistors 14 -- 2N5852. 0 A Power Dissipation (TC=25°C) PD 5. __ Designed by Web David White, WN5Y __ Designed by Web David White, WN5Y. Page 83: Switch Functions. Mouser is an ECIA Authorized distributor. But there are 29 other memories that can be used for quick frequency change, net frequency etc. 2N5109,J310,MC1350,SA602,NE5532,MAX293,AD9851,16F73 & TDA1013. You can also use transistor 2N5109 in place of 2N2219. A number of other transistors are suitable for the post mixer amplifier circuit such as the 2N5109, 2N3553, 2N5943, BFR-94 and for a SM transistor try the NE46134. These have excellent specs but today cost over $2 a piece. Silicon NPN, To-39 packaged VHF/UHF Transistor 1. Signals are finally fed to the class-C RF power amplifier, which delivers RF power to a 50-ohm horizontal dipole or ground plane antenna. Capacitors 34 -- 1200pF. The common-base amplifier is based on a UHF class A power transistor Type 2N5109 from Motorola. UNDER TESTING SEE THIS BLOG FOR. Q1 is a 2N5109, Digikey PN 2N5109CS-ND. I don’t have any 2N5109’s, so I’ve simply used S9014 with only a 270MHz gain bandwidth product, although of the stock I have on hand, an S9018 (800 MHz) might have been a better choice. Ready to close the lid. The circuit as shown here is the way I build it. X 1-3/16 in. 2N5109 Datasheet (PDF) 1. Applications include amplifier; pre-driver, driver, and output stages. The feedback circuit is formed by RF transformer Th. This device is not designed for power, and I'd be extremely sceptical that you could get any where near to the quoted 0. 7 Note that these are built directly on the board using “ugly” construc-tion. You may save a lot more than just design time. Oct 29, 2018 - Explore Engsenan's board "Amplifiers" on Pinterest. The one turn loop is wound through the FT50-43 core of the 2N5109 transformer. any spice models for 1S5 or other battery. You can use it as high IP preamplifier, buffer amplifier or small driver. These have excellent specs but today cost over $2 a piece. This is a four board set to build a 8W RF output CW 20 meter transceiver that is VFO controlled. Referring to Figure 1, on SSB transmit. The amplified RF is taken from the collector of the first transistor and is passed DC coupled to the input of the second amplifier stage. Gain is up to 18 dB and there is also build in variable ATT. 1 Hlavní smy čka Jak už bylo řečeno v úvodu, obvod hlavní smy čky je odvozen z vlnové délky λ (zpravidla. MIL-PRF-19500/453 › Transistor, NPN, Silicon, High-Frequency, Amplifier Type 2N5109 Quality Levels JAN, JANTX, JANTXV, JANS, JANHC, JANKC MIL-PRF-19500/453 - REVISION H/AM 1 - CURRENT Show Complete Document History. Ready to close the lid. This amplifier is broadband from about 0. Resources listed under Preamp category belongs to Technical Reference main collection, and get reviewed and rated by amateur radio operators. You can use it as high IP preamplifier for RX antennas (beverage, DHDL, flag etc. Although differential amplifier 10 may be fabricated in various configurations with components of many different values and types, a suitable amplifier may be fabricated by using the listed components for the various elements in the above-described circuit: Transistors 14 -- 2N5852. Construction RF linear hybrid amplifiers utilize the thin film manufacturing and construction techniques developed for the demanding CATV industry. Although several months of work produced very few suitable replacements, I did manage to fix most, if not all, design deficiencies known to be in the easy, economical way to adjust the gain on a feed back amplifier like this one without severely. The range is 0. Digital In digital applications of semiconductors, the goal is to switch between on and off states at the clock frequency, spending no time in between and thus. Der auf vielen Seiten noch angegebene Transistor vom Typ 2N5109, wurde bereits vor Jahren, immer wieder von einem deutlich besseren und rauschärmeren Typen ersetzt. been using transistors like the 2N3866, 2N5109, or stud mounted devices, read on. It has high gain despite of the very poor match on any frequency. NPN Transistor is a complement to 2N4403. Added the amplifier and the first shield. See the 2N5109 datasheet I chose this transistor because it had a very high value for fT which is the product of gain and frequency. W7IUV Beverage Pre-Amp (2N5109) 18. 2N5109 Datasheet (PDF) 1. You can as well apply transistor 2N5109 in rest of 2N2219. Spice model of BFY90 wanted? 14. 1st & 2nd Mixer, Roofing Filter, and Post Mixer Amplifier, top view. Instructions: 1. The circuit works well up to 50 MHz. , feedback-pair IF preamp. After a 2N3904 buffer amplifier, a two-stage Chebychev filter selects the 14MHz product, which is then amplified by a PN2222A driver stage and 2N5109 PA. For the BF199 transistor, possible substitutes would be 2N5109, BC547 or 2SC945. 3, a plugin installed on FreeNAS 11. 10 Pieces (Min. The output of the amplifier is then passed through a 1. Gain is also reasonably flat in the DXE amplifier. When the amp was reinserted into the rx and the 50 ohm output load replaced with the mixer the gain dropped to 9. Input should be at least 100mW to achieve 1W output. Silicon NPN, To-39 packaged VHF/UHF Transistor 1. Common Base Transformer Feedback Norton Amplifiers Formerly Ultralinear 2N5109 And 2N3053 Amplifiers Dallas Lankford, 8 VI 94, rev. DUT NF Measurement. The outermost 1" or more of the Tee is to be cut off, as is the better portion of the PVC end caps so as to make the assembly more compact. Circuit consists of a low-noise dual-gate MESFET RF amplifier, mixer, tunable local osc. 1W NPN VHF/UHF amplifier: 386K: 2N5109: 2N5109 Silicon NPN transistor, designed for VHF and UHF equipment. low time OM-2000+A HF/6 meter amplifier. From LTwiki-Wiki for LTspice. Although differential amplifier 10 may be fabricated in various configurations with components of many different values and types, a suitable amplifier may be fabricated by using the listed components for the various elements in the above-described circuit: Transistors 14 -- 2N5852. The actual 2N5109 input impedance is probably around 40 ohms — easy matching with an L-match network. Packaging Technique. Тиндер (Tinder) — частично платное приложение для мобильных платформ Android и Apple iOS, предназначенное для романтических знакомств в соответствии с заданными параметрами и с учетом геолокации. I had a discussion with the designer, W2DMR, some years back. RF linear hybrid amplifiers utilize the thin film manufacturing and construction techniques developed for the demanding CATV industry. Order today, ships today. Resources listed under Preamp category belongs to Technical Reference main collection, and get reviewed and rated by amateur radio operators. When the amp was reinserted into the rx and the 50 ohm output load replaced with the mixer the gain dropped to 9. Title: 2N5109. Similarly, the 2N5109 and 2N3866 often show up in places like transmitter driver stages and post-mixer amplifiers. The outermost 1” or more of the Tee is to be cut off, as is the better portion of the PVC end caps so as to make the assembly more compact. 2N5109 UHF wideband high frequency amplifier NPN transistor Shenzhen Goldeleway Electronics Technology Co. The antenna current consumption is 150 mA. 289K: 2SC1946: 2SC1946 VHF NPN power transistor, designed for VHF amplifiers with 30W power output: 140K: 2SC1970. You must follow the winding rules as same as core material for transformer and finally you must use prescribed current of the transistor in order to reach expected performances. The W7IUV amplifier is good sof VLF and low bands. Gain is up to 18dB and there is also build in variable ATT. Noise figure was 6. Applications include amplifier; pre-driver, driver, and TO-39 2N5109 NPN 200 3 10 15 12 1200 3. Even with 20db preamplification the noise level on 160m just barely goes up when you plug the antenna in. 5-5 W and RX preamplifier. 2N5109 Datasheet, 2N5109 PDF, 2N5109 Data sheet, 2N5109 manual, 2N5109 pdf, 2N5109, datenblatt, Electronics 2N5109, alldatasheet, free, datasheet, Datasheets, data. Saman valmistajan erän (4 kpl) pienin hfe oli 15 ja suurin 72. 2N1005 Si npn 150mW 15V 15V - 25mA 175>C - - 10/35 AMP TO5 RLA BC107 A157 KT301B 2N1006 Si npn 150mW 15V 15V - 25mA 175>C - - 25/150 STE TO5 RLA BC107 A157 KT301B 2N1007 Ge pnp 30W 40V 30V 15V 3A 95>C 60KHz - 50/250 CSR TO3 Power General Purpose AZS16 2N1536 P216 2SB69. The form factor standardized by the CATV industry allows the hybrid amplifier to be bolted directly to the chassis frame for maximum power dissipation. '4046 SPICE Model. 2N2222A http://onsemi. Download 2n datasheet from continental device india limited. Amplifiers with an L-match tuned input shouldn't follow a diode ring mixer unless preceded with a diplexer since the narrow-band L-match tunes only 1 frequency. You can also use transistor 2N5109 in place of 2N2219. This one is designed to amplify the 20KHz to >30 MHz range, uses the premium J310 FET and 2N5109 CATV bipolar transistors, giving a good combination of low thermal noise, gain and IMD resistance. power amplifier 2. Capacitors 34 -- 1200pF. 5 to more than 50 MHZ with 14 dB of stable gain and very. Minimum Order: The Minimun Order amount is $15. You can use it as high IP preamplifier, buffer amplifier or small driver. I've been trying to figure out how to select transistors for radio frequency circuits but not being able to find much information on the web. A German ham who is getting excellent results with his told me I should look into a preamp. The frequency doubler circuit does require +12 VDC to operate. They work well for HF and fit well with an home-brew attenuator. The 5109 was best even though she used only one. It has high gain despite of the very poor match on any frequency. 10MHz 2N5109 Noise Figure Measurement 10MHz 2N2219A Noise Figure Measurement Common Emitter Transformer Feedback Push Pull Amplifier. Usable as a high frequency current mode switch to 200mA. WINTransceiver C B E Features: Low Noise Figure: NF = 3. The preamplifier is a tuned class-A RF amplifier and the driver is a class-C amplifier. Mouser is an ECIA Authorized distributor. Both transistors have a TO-39 case. The preamplifier is much simpler and it is. The amplified RF is taken from the collector of the first transistor and is passed DC coupled to the input of the second amplifier stage. The circuit works well up to 50 MHz. 2GHz 1W Through Hole TO-39 from Central Semiconductor Corp. Although differential amplifier 10 may be fabricated in various configurations with components of many different values and types, a suitable amplifier may be fabricated by using the listed components for the various elements in the above-described circuit: Transistors 14 -- 2N5852. IC Cross Reference Cross Reference CI STK Cross Reference CI TDA Cross Reference CI Sharp Cross Reference Hitachi Audio IC Cross Reference and Circuit Applications SMD Cross Reference and Equivalent We make every effort to ensure that the material on this site is accurate, however we do not warrant or represent that the Information is free from errors or omission. The common-base amplifier is based on a UHF class A power transistor Type 2N5109 from Motorola. (LT-Spice) Other RF models also welcome. 50 / Piece. 2N5109 Datasheet (PDF) 1. Blue link means the search has found datasheet. About preamps for ham radio use category is a curation of 38 web resources on , 432MHz Low Noise Preamp, Mizuho products, The 50MHz Assistant. For 50 ohms, wind 10 turns bifilar using the. The outermost 1” or more of the Tee is to be cut off, as is the better portion of the PVC end caps so as to make the assembly more compact. It was marketed as a switching transistor, the datasheets you can still find for this type of transistor usually don't even specify frequency-dependent behaviour, base-emitter capacity is only spec'ed below 1 MHz, the cutoff currents are relatively high… this is amongs the least suitable transistors you could find for an RF antenna amplifier. Radio tubes are valves. If you want a low noise transistor and are unable to obtain a MRF581A try to obtain a 2N3866 as this transistor has a low base spreading resistance. That also meant I couldn t use my K9AY, my best low band receive antenna or the phase controlled. Use a 2N5109 or 2N3866 with a heat-sink and lots of current. The circuit works well up to 50 MHz. Input impedance is reasonably high, as typical of other common-emitter designs. goes up in smoke, it’s no big deal. 5 to more than 50 MHZ with 14 dB of stable gain and very. Depending on Frequency, I like BFY90, the BFR series (BRF90, BFR91, BFR96), the 2N5109 CATV transistor, but also the 2N5179 or similar. Return loss of the feedback amplifier with 13 dB gain. It should. 5ghz 2N5116 P-FET 30V 5mA 150E Up<4V | 2N5154 SI-N 100V 2A 10W 2N5179 SI-N 20V 50mA 0. Question: (b) High Impedance Low Capacitance Amplifier 100 } 1K Vour 2 VIN 2N5109 2N4416 VOUT R2 10K 10M R1 IK IK TL/H/6791-24 High Impedance Low Capacitance Amplifier This Compound Series-feedback Circuit Provides High Input Impedance And Stable, Wide-band Gain For General Purpose Video Amplifier Applications. International Purchases: Our preferred method of payment is via Wire Transfer of funds. I don’t have any 2N5109’s, so I’ve simply used S9014 with only a 270MHz gain bandwidth product, although of the stock I have on hand, an S9018 (800 MHz) might have been a better choice. The most important part of this design in my opinion is the transformer and working state of the transistor 2N5109. The input and output impedance of the preamplifier is 50 4 for optimum perform-ance. Applications include amplifier; pre-driver, driver, and output stages. 2GHz 1W Through Hole TO-39 from Central Semiconductor Corp. New electronic parts added daily. Bob, DU7ET planning to be active again as VQ9ET from Diego Garcia Island, IOTA AF-006, Chagos Islands. The basic transistor amplifier circuit is indicated below: It is called a "common emitter" amplifier since the emitter is common to both the input circuti and the output circuit. VOUT eblog10 # VIN VREFJ Voltage Controlled Variable Gain Amplifier TL/H/9241–4 *R8–R10 and D2 provide a temperature Distortion k 0. This PCB is for 5N5109 or DCP68 transistors. Blue link means the search has found datasheet. Wideband Loop Antenna Amplifier #1 Mechanicals This version of amplifier is intended to be mounted in a 2 1/2" PVC Tee. of broadband transformer design are adhered to, then a BJT CBTF amp using 2N5109’s has about the same frequency range as the transformer alone for a given Z0. 8 Component Pinout: 8 7 6 5 SOT-23 Transistor Package SO-8 2N5109 Style 6 IC Package Style 10 Style 21 1N914 (Top) (case) N. You may save a lot more than just design time. The preamplifier is much simpler and it is. 0dB Typ @ f = 200MHz High Current−Gain Bandwidth Product: fT = 1200MHz Min @ IC = 50mA. The output voltage of an op amp at dc can be expressed as V 3 =A 0d (V 2 −V 1)+ A 0cm 2 (V 1 +V 2) (B. (LT-Spice) Other RF models also welcome. Applications include amplifier; pre-driver, driver, and output stages. 2N5109 EPUB - Visit our website at or contact our factory direct. Gain is up to 18 dB and there is also build in variable ATT. 2W >1GHz | 2N5192 SI-N 80V 4A 40W 2MHz. The common-base rf amplifier is based on a UHF class A power transistor Type 2N5109 from Motorola. 5 V Continuous Collector Current IC 0. The marker is at 1. Title: Protel Schematic Author: mkatsouris Created Date: 12/24/2013 1:28:09 PM. 2n5109 rf amplifier 2n5109 rf amplifier. Ihmeellisen suuria eroja löytyi. May someone can point me in the right direction. TM R3 (23-June 2005) MAXIMUM RATINGS: (TA=25°C unless otherwise. Following the RF amplifier is a second dual-PIN-diode switch, D1. centralsemi. Circuit consists of a low-noise dual-gate MESFET RF amplifier, mixer, tunable local osc. Hence, reducing the amplifier noise floor by up to 13dB compared to more conventional low noise amplifiers. The educational resource for the global engineering community. 型号 2n109 2n1304 2n1305 2n1307 2n1613 2n1711 2n1893 2n2102 2n2148 2n2165 2n2166 2n2219a 2n2222a 2n2223 2n2223a 2n2243a 2n2369a 2n2857 2n2894 2n2905a 2n2906a 2n2907a 2n2917 2n2926 2n2955 2n3019 2n3053 2n3054 2n3055 2n3055 2n3055h 2n3251 2n3375 2n3439 2n3440 2n3441 2n3442 2n3495 2n3502 2n3553 2n3571 2n3583 2n3632 2n3646 2n3700 关键参数 ge-p 35v 0. Use this with a mini transmiiter that has about around 100mW output, as an input to this amplifier, connect the output to a proper antenna via a 50-ohm coaxial cable such as RG-58 Advertisement Q1 Transistor is 2N5109 , 2N3866 , 2N4427 or MRF227. In addition to the DDS there is a 2N5109 amplifier used to lift the DDS output up to the level required by the TR-7. An amp built using a 2N5109 can have a noise figure in the 2. Notes The circuit uses two 2N3819 FET's in cascode configuration. The W7IUV amplifier is good sof VLF and low bands. DESCRIPTION: The 2N5109 is a silicon NPN transistor, designed for VHF and UHF equipment. - - - Updated - - -. I shall scrap the 2N5109 idea, after I just finished the PCB layout. I know this is a old one, but its provide exellent data. RF linear hybrid amplifiers utilize the thin film manufacturing and construction techniques developed for the demanding CATV industry. This PGA 103 will do much better. ADVANCEDPOWER. If you want a low noise transistor and are unable to obtain a MRF581A try to obtain a 2N3866 as this transistor has a low base spreading resistance. It says it can be substituted by a BC148. The diplexer network was first designed analytically from the equations pre-sented in section 3 and then optimized with Touchstone. Anyway, the one above looks like this when hacked together of old parts:. Tube 2N5109 or Röhre 2N5109 ID69806, Transistor, Wires and UHF shown. Gain is up to 18dB and there is also build in variable ATT. UNDER TESTING SEE THIS BLOG FOR. Blue link means the search has found datasheet. - - - Updated - - -. One turn is just one time through the center of the core, as shown in the image. A revision of this balun used the NE461 transistor (chosen for its more compact size and improved gain-bandwidth product) and was. amplifier) to drive a number of 50 ohm build-out resistors, or by Enclosed are the measured forward and reverse gain of that circuit with a 2N5109 and a 2N3904. 2N5109 Datasheet (PDF) 1. Whip und Loop Aktive Antennen für den Empfang G. Return loss of the feedback amplifier with 13 dB gain. com 3 IC, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) h FE, DC CURRENT GAIN 400 0. Input impedance is reasonably high, as typical of other common-emitter designs. The resultant amplifier chain consisted of a variable gain MOSFET amp, a regular MOSFET amp, and the 2N5109 amp. 2N5109 UHF wideband high frequency amplifier NPN transistor Shenzhen Goldeleway Electronics Technology Co. 21 V 07 For about a year I have been experimenting with extremely high intercept amplifiers using 2N5109 bipolar junction transistors (BJTs). The circuit as shown here is the way I build it. The most important part of this design in my opinion is the transformer and working state of the transistor 2N5109. 2N5109 RF NPN Transistor. Limit the current to 10ma and garden variety BC549c can do the job for you. The feedback circuit is formed by RF transformer Th. Vy 73 de Herb - OE5BRL Herb, I've also searched for the same Spice models and also any RF power transistor models. Resources listed under Preamp category belongs to Technical Reference main collection, and get reviewed and rated by amateur radio operators. This basic amplifier circuit is used everwhere a 10 to 20 db gain is needed. missoula, montana. Use any of the following 2N5109, MRF227, 2N4427, 2N3866 as Q1 transistor. Notes The circuit uses two 2N3819 FET's in cascode configuration. As built, I measured about +13 dB gain and it drew 118 mA @ 14. But the 2SC6097 would appear to be a better choice if I can get a heat-sink to suit. Class B and C RF Amplifier Operating Characteristic Curves Online www. com is ideal, but I have a lot of surplus 2N2219A's in the drawer of junque. 2N5109 Datasheet, 2N5109 PDF, 2N5109 Data sheet, 2N5109 manual, 2N5109 pdf, 2N5109, datenblatt, Electronics 2N5109, alldatasheet, free, datasheet, Datasheets, data. LOT OF 7, TDA1675A Vertical Deflection Circuit New Original SGS LOT OF 2, TDA7393 Original ST 2 x 32W DUAL BRIDGE CAR RADIO AMPLIFIER, TDA7240A Original ST Microelectronics Power Amplifier LOT OF 10, TDA1675A Vertical Deflection Circuit New Original SGS LOT OF 5, 6-PACK | Very Rare LUXURY JOHNNIE WALKER Gold Label Case / Gift Box, 2SC2634. The "To +12" lead goes to a 10 ohm resistor, and then connects to a +12 power supply, as shown in the schematic below. The PN2222A preamps are running about 5 to 10 dB less on the OIP2 IMD, but not much difference on the OIP3 IMD, however, there is little difference on gain (3dB frequency span). Limit the current to 10ma and garden variety BC549c can do the job for you. 1 to 15 W for the basic K2, and 1 to ATTN attenuator in (-10 dB) 100 W if you have the KPA100 amplifier installed. 2N5109 UHF wideband high frequency amplifier NPN transistor Shenzhen Goldeleway Electronics Technology Co. I occasionally like to tune around in the BCB and LF bands and this means I would have to live with the approximate 5 to 6 dB loss of the splitter, or go through the drill of switching the external receive loop out. Norton amplifiers have an input impedance of around 2 ohms whereas the PGA-103+ has an input impedance of around 1K ohm. The photo below is the RF & mixer stages. MPSH10 was disappointing. This network was added at the amplifier’s input in order to obtain a flat gain response over the entire band. 2N5109 PBFREE – RF Transistor NPN 20V 400mA 1. Loop7 serves a network of advertising partners through our owned properties, in addition to our clients who want to take their program to the next level. For 50 ohms, wind 10 turns bifilar using the. Signals are finally fed to the class-C RF power amplifier, which delivers RF power to a 50-ohm horizontal dipole or ground plane antenna. Use any of the following 2N5109, MRF227, 2N4427, 2N3866 as Q1 transistor. 2N5109 SILICON NPN RF TRANSISTOR DESCRIPTION: The CENTRAL SEMICONDUCTOR 2N5109 is a silicon NPN epitaxial planar RF transistor mounted in a hermetically sealed package designed for high frequency amplifier applications. MARKING: FULL PART NUMBER MAXIMUM RATINGS: (TA=25°C unless otherwise noted) SYMBOL UNITS Collector-Base Voltage VCBO 40 V. 4)I modeled (using SPICE) the front end FET preamp section of the W1FB preamp and used a 2K ohm load to simulate the input of the MC1350. 2GHz 1W Through Hole TO-39 from Central Semiconductor Corp. Transistors tried that worked better included the TO18 2n2222A, 2n3866, and 2n5109. 40V CE rating. X 1-3/16 in. When I initially got the Harris, I drove it from the transvertor output of a TS-850 through a single 2N5109 broadband amp stage. Title: 2N5109. Spice model of BFY90 wanted? 14. 5W Through Hole TO-39 from Microsemi Corporation. Also suitable for oscillator and frequency-multiplier functions. Information on using the program and simulating the amplifier can be found at "Simulating Circuits and Systems with Serenade SV", by David Newkirk, W9VES, January 2001, QST, Page 37. This basic amplifier circuit is used everwhere a 10 to 20 db gain is needed. 1m (51″) wide with a built-in low noise high dynamic range RF amplifier. You may save a lot more than just design time. The output transistor is another 2N5109, fitted with a small aluminium heatsink. Description: This is a down converter that converts wide band TV signals in the 420 to 440Mhz (70-cm amateur TV) to a 61. DX Engineering Preamp. The first was based on EMRFD Figure 2. LOT OF 7, TDA1675A Vertical Deflection Circuit New Original SGS LOT OF 2, TDA7393 Original ST 2 x 32W DUAL BRIDGE CAR RADIO AMPLIFIER, TDA7240A Original ST Microelectronics Power Amplifier LOT OF 10, TDA1675A Vertical Deflection Circuit New Original SGS LOT OF 5, 6-PACK | Very Rare LUXURY JOHNNIE WALKER Gold Label Case / Gift Box, 2SC2634. Signals are finally fed to the class-C RF power amplifier, which delivers RF power to a 50-ohm horizontal dipole or ground plane antenna. 95 MHz, on which we have a very strong local pager transmitter. This is a universal 1 Watt RF class C amplifier that is ideally suited for low power FM transmitters. to-39 2n5109 npn 200 3 10 15 12 1200 3. 2N5109 datasheet, 2N5109 PDF, 2N5109 Pinout, Equivalent, Replacement - NPN SILICON HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR - ASI, Schematic, Circuit, Manual. ixsystems changed how plugins worked for FreeNAS 11. Gain is also reasonably flat in the DXE amplifier. The design is a dual 2N5109 in push pull which increases the input and output capability as reflected in higher IOP numbers. 5 to more than 30 MHZ with 14 dB of stable gain and very good linearity. Ihmeellisen suuria eroja löytyi. I could really use some pdf's. Thats my opinion for what it's worth. Semi-Conductors encourages customers to veri fy that datasheets are current. Depending on Frequency, I like BFY90, the BFR series (BRF90, BFR91, BFR96), the 2N5109 CATV transistor, but also the 2N5179 or similar. You can also use transistor 2N5109 in place of 2N2219. ERA-5 SM RF Amplifier with PCB and ADCH-80. Due to large volumes of email, I regret that I can only answer questions. Circuit consists of a low-noise dual-gate MESFET RF amplifier, mixer, tunable local osc. Wideband Loop Antenna Amplifier #1 Mechanicals This version of amplifier is intended to be mounted in a 2 1/2” PVC Tee. 1 Piece (Min. So I have used a small attenuator to bring the SIGGEN output down to the amplifier input level. The first was based on EMRFD Figure 2. ERA-5 SM RF Amplifier with PCB and ADCH-80. The BFG591 is now obsolete and the BFU590 is a good replacement. Broadband RF Amp Description: The NTE278 is a silicon NPN transistor in a TO39 type package designed specifically for broadband applications requiring good linearity. 2N1005 Si npn 150mW 15V 15V - 25mA 175>C - - 10/35 AMP TO5 RLA BC107 A157 KT301B 2N1006 Si npn 150mW 15V 15V - 25mA 175>C - - 25/150 STE TO5 RLA BC107 A157 KT301B 2N1007 Ge pnp 30W 40V 30V 15V 3A 95>C 60KHz - 50/250 CSR TO3 Power General Purpose AZS16 2N1536 P216 2SB69. Common Base Transformer Feedback Norton Amplifiers. 2N5109 2N5109 Silicon NPN Transistor Broadband RF Amplifier Description: The 2N5109 is a silicon NPN transistor in a TO39 type package designed specifically for broadband applications requiring good linearity. Datasheet pdf search engine - www. Signals are finally fed to the class-C RF power amplifier, which delivers RF power to a 50-ohm horizontal dipole or ground plane antenna. The answer to this conundrum is that these amplifiers were designed around 24v power supplies. It is also suitable for oscillator and frequency-multiplier functions. The preamplifier is a tuned class-A RF amplifier and the driver is a class-C amplifier. This pre-amp departs from previous units that I've designed and built in that, rather than a series tuned circuit to match the antenna to the FET, it uses a parallel tuned circuit with a tap for the antenna connection. Usable as a high frequency current mode switch to 200mA. References:. This amplifier is broadband from about 0. Vy 73 de Herb - OE5BRL. For additional information, see the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions — opens in a new window or tab This amount includes applicable customs duties, taxes, brokerage and other fees. 1 uF input cap with 1500 pf. Miscelaneous Dummy load 800 watts. The low gain of the antenna requires a preamp. I know this is a old one, but its provide exellent data. A revision of this balun used the NE461 transistor (chosen for its more compact size and improved gain-bandwidth product) and was. 50 / Piece. DC Current Gain 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 150°C −55°C. I swapped the 0. Notes The circuit uses two 2N3819 FET's in cascode configuration. The "To +12" lead goes to a 10 ohm resistor, and then connects to a +12 power supply, as shown in the schematic below. 73, Roelof, PA0RDT’. The 2N5109 transistor prices are much higher than they use to be. It was marketed as a switching transistor, the datasheets you can still find for this type of transistor usually don't even specify frequency-dependent behaviour, base-emitter capacity is only spec'ed below 1 MHz, the cutoff currents are relatively high… this is amongs the least suitable transistors you could find for an RF antenna amplifier. 2N5109 DATASHEET PDF - The 2N is a silicon NPN transistor, designed for VHP and UHF equipment. 45 or the 2N3053 at $0. Applications include amplifier; pre-driver, driver, and TO-39 2N5109 NPN 200 3 10 15 12 1200 3. Pricing and Availability on millions of electronic components from Digi-Key Electronics. Asia Map - Asia continent is not only the largest but also the most populous and diverse continent in the world, covering about 30% of Earth's total land area. 4a 4w 5ma | 2n5109 si-n 40v 0. 80W / 100MHz (BSS43, BSW68) Designed for use in General Purpose Amplifier and High Speed Switching Ap…. The Cross Country Wireless HF Active RX Loop is a triangular loop antenna 1. Other suggested transistors types are Q1=BD135, BD137, BD139, Q2= 2N3906, BC557, BC558, TIY050. The aperture of the loop is more than sufficient to allow the antenna to set the noise floor of an average receiver, without the use of an outboard preamplifier. Mistä näitä transistoreita oikein tulee ? Paras pari oli hfe 15 ja 16. The input/output transformer is wound on a Type FT37-75 ferrite core from Micrometals. Input impedance is reasonably high, as typical of other common-emitter designs. So I have used a small attenuator to bring the SIGGEN output down to the amplifier input level. There is also information about Norton feedback RF amplifiers in EMFRD. ITEMS -ultra low noise and low distortion op amp qty 6 in mandm 8 pin op amp bo AD8307 Analog Devices sample1 JC big box AD8307 AD976 28 PIN DIP also part nr 370978-1 in Analog Devices plastic case (samples) in JC big box AD976. 4 30 15 15 1300 30 400 to-72 2n5179 npn 200 4. The circuit as shown here is the way I build it. Preparing the case. QST - jun 2002 -dec 2005 - jan 2006. An amp built using a 2N5109 can have a noise figure in the 2. UNDER TESTING SEE THIS BLOG FOR. Find out the details about its history, geography, facts, travel destinations and more. From EMRFD Yahoo group: ‘On another note, I have used for years a BFG591 as 2N5109 replacement. 2008 10-2 Obr. The learning center for future and novice engineers. Looking for 2N5109 Spice Model. 4 30 15 15 1300 30 400 to-72 2n5179 npn 200 4. 3MHz Noise Figure Measurement N-Gen -> 40dB Attenuator -> DUT -> 30dB LNA -> VNWA Port 2 Power = 12. But there are 29 other memories that can be used for quick frequency change, net frequency etc. Whip und Loop Aktive Antennen für den Empfang G. The BFG591 is now obsolete and the BFU590 is a good replacement. You are exactly right. Recommended input voltage is 12 - 15V. I made a lot of amplifier modules for different frequency bands and power levels. The "To +12" lead goes to a 10 ohm resistor, and then connects to a +12 power supply, as shown in the schematic below. IC Cross Reference Cross Reference CI STK Cross Reference CI TDA Cross Reference CI Sharp Cross Reference Hitachi Audio IC Cross Reference and Circuit Applications SMD Cross Reference and Equivalent We make every effort to ensure that the material on this site is accurate, however we do not warrant or represent that the Information is free from errors or omission. An interface box was created to connect to the standard ATX power supply connector to allow turning on the power supply and access to the various voltages. ixsystems changed how plugins worked for FreeNAS 11. I don’t have any 2N5109’s, so I’ve simply used S9014 with only a 270MHz gain bandwidth product, although of the stock I have on hand, an S9018 (800 MHz) might have been a better choice. Name View Description; BC337: TO-92 grid 2. MARKING: FULL PART NUMBER MAXIMUM RATINGS: (TA=25°C unless otherwise noted) SYMBOL UNITS Collector-Base Voltage VCBO 40 V. X 1-3/16 in. Vy 73 de Herb - OE5BRL. 5 to more than 30 MHZ with 14 dB of stable gain and very good linearity. ADVANCEDPOWER. This basic amplifier circuit is used everwhere a 10 to 20 db gain is needed. 5W output power. That gave me a high gain amp on one side, and a low noise lower gain amp on the other; a nice combo. Input and output impedance is 50 ohm. com, [email protected] 5 V Continuous Collector Current IC 0. The input/output transformer is wound on a Type FT37-75 ferrite core from Micrometals. com SILICON DESCRIPTION: NPN RF TRANSISTOR The CENTRAL SEMICONDUCTOR 2N5109 is a Silicon NPN Epitaxial Planar RF Transistor mounted in a hermetically sealed package designed for high frequency amplifier applications. A pi filter (using the two toroidal inductors) reduces the harmonic content of the transmitter. Added the amplifier and the first shield. It uses a pre amplifier based on deferential setup of two 2N5109 transistors. I've tried using the AD8331 chip, but I was unable to achieve its specified noise characteristics, and even if I did I'm not sure they would be good enough. From EMRFD Yahoo group: ‘On another note, I have used for years a BFG591 as 2N5109 replacement. Both of the above transistors are readily available from several mail order sources. Broadband RF Amp Description: The NTE278 is a silicon NPN transistor in a TO39 type package designed specifically for broadband applications requiring good linearity. From LTwiki-Wiki for LTspice. Here is a double sided gold plated PCB designed some years ago to build some 2N5109 or 2N3866 based RF power amplifiers. DESCRIPTION: The 2N5109 is a silicon NPN transistor, designed for VHF and UHF equipment. Parts The following list contains parts that are available. ADVANCEDPOWER. I made a lot of amplifier modules for different frequency bands and power levels. sertion loss is about 2 dB. It's ancient. The most important part of this design in my opinion is the transformer and working state of the transistor 2N5109. This is treated in the manual. 15w 10mhz ge-p. Minimum Order: The Minimun Order amount is $15. sertion loss is about 2 dB. Der auf vielen Seiten noch angegebene Transistor vom Typ 2N5109, wurde bereits vor Jahren, immer wieder von einem deutlich besseren und rauschärmeren Typen ersetzt. VFO Buffer - In the first design of the receiver, this buffer was used with an FET VFO oscillator followed by a filter and a 2N5109 amplifier. The amplified RF is taken from the collector of the first transistor and is passed DC coupled to the input of the second amplifier stage. May someone can point me in the right direction. It's really a nice preamp and very easy to build. Spice model of BFY90 wanted? 14. q Switchable low noise pre-amp (14dB gain) and attenuator (20dB). Unless the 2SC6097 is viable your only options appear to be a switching fet, a jbot approach, or a genuine RF transistor. 2N5109 PBFREE – RF Transistor NPN 20V 400mA 1. These have excellent specs but today cost over $2 a piece. The preamplifier is much simpler and it is. Circuit consists of a low-noise dual-gate MESFET RF amplifier, mixer, tunable local osc. A simple circuit diagram of the class b amplifier with the using the s is shown below. 01a: u-310 n-ch 25v 0. Modul zesilovače s 2N5109 dle W7IUV. Quick demo on 31 meters, lots of stations at sunset time. dan's small parts and kits. Here is a double sided gold plated PCB designed some years ago to build some 2N5109 or 2N3866 based RF power amplifiers. So the PGA-103+ will work as a loop amplifier, but the mismatch loss means that the noise figure and gain flatness is not as good as it really needs to be for this application. MARKING CODE: FULL PART NUMBER 2N5109 SILICON NPN RF TRANSISTOR TO-39 CASE Central Semiconductor Corp. You can make your own if you can find an old 2N5109 transistor. The circuit as shown here is the way I build it. 1 1 10 100 Figure 1. To provide adequate LO drive, the incoming 10MHz source is routed to a custom amplifier PCB (NO3M design), consisting of a SV1AFN based 2N5109 amplifier circuit, 10 MHz LPF, and a 0 degree hybrid splitter (Mini-Circuits LRPS-2-1). You must follow the winding rules as same as core material for transformer and finally you must use prescribed current of the transistor in order to reach expected performances. 5 5 6 11 4000 1 15 30. The range is 0. But in Trask's curves, these devices do not look amongst the best. Unlike simpler sensors, the TSL2561 measures both infrared and visible light to better approximate the response of the human eye. The most prominent ones are Norton broadband amps up to 150MHz using CATV or even common medium frequency transistors (BFY90, 2N5109, 2N2219) at low, medium and high collector currents. Question: (b) High Impedance Low Capacitance Amplifier 100 } 1K Vour 2 VIN 2N5109 2N4416 VOUT R2 10K 10M R1 IK IK TL/H/6791-24 High Impedance Low Capacitance Amplifier This Compound Series-feedback Circuit Provides High Input Impedance And Stable, Wide-band Gain For General Purpose Video Amplifier Applications. 56 shipping. Applications include amplifier; pre-driver, driver, and output stages. The operating frequency is 7MHz. We have developed a discrete component amplifier that is intended for use in Long Wavelength Array appli- cations. At the moment the breadboard has two sbl1/ 2n5109 blocks that run at a net gain per block of about +8 dB, your 22 dB configuration per block minus mixer loss should net the receiver about 14 dB better – to tell the truth the lower gain is great here on 80 and 40, not loud but very useable with full size inverted. That correlates with a high-current bipolar amp stage. This is very simply preamplifier module with 2N5109 transistor based on W7IUV design. 2N2430 xref to NTE103A NPN Ge Pwr AMP blue dot QTY 2 in BIN PICKONE NPN – TO-1 metal can also one 2N2431 XREF to NTE158 in bin ECG158, 160 ect germanium pnp amp might be a TO1 case price $3. It says it can be substituted by a BC148. Unfortunately noise figure is not that good for a GAsFET, probably because of the very large input.